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Science
The topic of this paper is the debate of whether or not maternal employment has any effect on infant development. Research on this described topic has recently become popular due to the rise of working mothers over the past several decades. Their increasing numbers in the workplace and decreasing numbers as stay at home moms are creating a number of different issues to be studied. The effects of maternal employment are determined by a number of factors that include, the mother's job satisfaction and drive, amount of work, and the mother's opinion of quality versus quantity time with children. The main concept at hand here is the importance of an attachment in the first few years as being vital to a child's later development. One side of the argument backs up this fact saying that it is important for a child to have their mother home with them during this period of development. The other side argues that they are finding that it may be more beneficial for the child to be placed in some form of nontraditional care environment. This paper will examine these different effects on infant development whether they are positive or negative. There are two sides to this argument as expected for any issue in debate. I will discuss these two sides by using the arguments of researchers that have studied this topic and written articles on their opposing feelings on maternal employment. I will summarize separately these two researchers' different views along with their findings. After I have summarized some of their findings I will be presenting my own personal view on this topic. The authors arguing the yes side of this debate are, Jay Belsky and David Eggebeen. Their purpose in writing on this issue was to touch upon some of the issues involved...
pages: 6 (words: 1639)
comments: 0
added: 12/20/2011
The topic of this paper is the debate of whether or not maternal employment has any effect on infant development. Research on this described topic has recently become popular due to the rise of working mothers over the past several decades. Their increasing numbers in the workplace and decreasing numbers as stay at home moms are creating a number of different issues to be studied. The effects of maternal employment are determined by a number of factors that include, the mother's job satisfaction and drive, amount of work, and the mother's opinion of quality versus quantity time with children. The main concept at hand here is the importance of an attachment in the first few years as being vital to a child's later development. One side of the argument backs up this fact saying that it is important for a child to have their mother home with them during this period of development. The other side argues that they are finding that it may be more beneficial for the child to be placed in some form of nontraditional care environment. This paper will examine these different effects on infant development whether they are positive or negative. There are two sides to this argument as expected for any issue in debate. I will discuss these two sides by using the arguments of researchers that have studied this topic and written articles on their opposing feelings on maternal employment. I will summarize separately these two researchers' different views along with their findings. After I have summarized some of their findings I will be presenting my own personal view on this topic. The authors arguing the yes side of this debate are, Jay Belsky and David Eggebeen. Their purpose in writing on this issue was to touch upon some of the issues involved...
pages: 6 (words: 1639)
comments: 0
added: 01/06/2012
The definition of a modern state is debatable, but for the purpose of this essay the definition 'a distinct form of public power, separate from both ruler and ruled and forming the political authority within certain defined boundaries', (Chapter 2, Unit 1, p 73) appears appropriate. A modern state has four main features: fixed territorial boundaries, a monopoly on force and the means of coercion, impersonal and sovereign political order and the legitimacy to represent the needs and interests of its citizens. This form of state was to become a common feature of the entire global system. This essay will outline the main historical forces which have contributed to the development of the modern state; warfare, the growth of capitalism, and the process of democratization. The historical period covered is from the seventeenth century, following the English Civil War (1640-88) and the French Revolution (1789). Warfare would appear to be central to the development of the modern state. Competition among states was largely driven by insecurity and vast amounts of capital were needed to enable a state to be secure. A state would need to be prepared to go to war to secure its territorial boundaries. In turn neighboring states, feeling insecure at their neighbor's war preparation, would also need to arm. A vicious circle of insecurity referred to as the 'security dilemma' (ibid p95). Another reason for states to maintain fully equipped armies was the leverage this would possibly give them in negotiations with other states. The ability of a state to secure and/or extend its boundaries was dependant upon the resources available and its ability to extract these resources from the citizens of that state, whether it be manpower, weaponry, foodstuffs or finance. As the state got larger the needs for resources became greater and boundaries needed to...
pages: 6 (words: 1523)
comments: 0
added: 02/03/2012
Elements of the "American Dream" The American dream. It consists of a family, house, cars, and other luxury items. How did it become the American dream? Why do we feel so compelled to pursue it? The reason is because we, the American public, have been convinced through advertising to acquire it. It is a very powerful way of persuasion. Advertising affects us so powerfully that it sometimes sets our views of society for us. We constantly absorb images of families, houses, and cars through commercials and magazine ads. It persuades us so strongly to the point that it can alter our social consciousness. Alter it to the point that we feel that the American dream is no longer a luxury, it has become a necessity. Today there is almost no way to escape advertisements. The radio, television, and magazine ads make sure of that. The more we view these advertisements, the more we are persuaded toward the American dream. With a television in almost every household and magazines only an arm's length away, advertisers basically have us on our knees. We must digest advertisers the views so frequently that you would think it was necessary to sustain life. Advertising's main goal is to persuade. They want us to see the American way through their eyes. They tell us what to eat, drink, wear, drive, and think. Advertisers start this form of brainwashing on us at a very early age. They lay the groundwork of ideals early on because it is easy to persuade a child. Now, with the two-income family, children are left to interpret not only advertisements but television programming as well without supervision. Children are forced to make their own evaluations and most of the time they go along with the views of what they see. How many...
pages: 6 (words: 1566)
comments: 0
added: 12/25/2011
Human behavior is influenced and shaped by social forces and personal characteristics. Work behavior is social behavior. To understand gender related issues one has to build a joint construct of individual agents and their social cultural context. This is even more true when the countries involved are oceans apart as in this study i.e. the USA and India. Different nations have different cultural heritages which are values collectively held by a majority of population (possibly differentiated by social classes), and these values are transferred from generation to generation through education, early childhood experiences in the family, schools and through socialization in organizations and institutions. These values become social norms for that society. It is hard to see this proce ss in one's own culture. A deep and painfully acquired empathy for other cultures is required before one becomes sensitive to the range of social norms., for truths in one society may be falsehoods in another. Hofstede (1980) after analyzing research data from forty different modern nations has come up with a scale of characteristics that can be used to distinguish the prevailing cultures in various countries of the world.2 Based on that scale Americans would be characterized as high in individualism, low in power distance, low on uncertainty avoidance, and high on masculinity. Indians (middle class) would be high on individualism, high on power distance, high on uncertainty avoidance, and high on masculinity. Management itself is very much an American concept. Other countries can learn new ideas in management and organizational politics from America, however to apply to one's own setting, needs prudence and judgment Indian middle class already shares American values about achievement, that is the reason perhaps McClelland could build on those values when he did research in India.3 Up until 1954 researchers tended to ignore females workers...
pages: 18 (words: 4874)
comments: 0
added: 02/14/2012
Life in America has been molded by many factors including those of the hippie movement in the Sixties. With the development of new technology, a war against Communism, and an internal war against racial injustice, a change in America was sure to happen. As the children of the baby boom became young adults, they found far more discontent with the world around them. This lead to a subculture labeled as hippies, that as time went one merged into a mass society all its own. These people were upset about a war in Vietnam, skeptical of the present government and its associated authority, and searching for a place to free themselves from society's current norms, bringing the style they are known for today. "Eve of destruction; no satisfaction…and a third motif went rippling through the baby-boom culture: adhesive love" (Gitlin 200). The freedom they found came with the help of drugs. Marijuana evolved from its "black and Hispanic, jazz-minded enclaves to the outlying zones of the white middle class young" (Gitlin 200). This new drug allowed a person to open their mind to new understandings and philosophies. But it wasn't just marijuana that opened the minds of the youth; a new drug known as LSD came into existence: Depending on who was doing the talking, [LSD] is an intellectual tool to explore psychic 'inner space,' a new source of kicks for thrill seekers, the sacramental substance of a far-out mystical movement- or the latest and most frightening addiction to the list of mind drugs now available in the pill society being fashioned by pharmacology (Clark 59). With politicians and law enforcement officers looking on the drug as a danger to society, many expert chemists "set up underground laboratories and fabricated potent and pure LSD…kept their prices down, gave out plenty of...
pages: 4 (words: 1088)
comments: 0
added: 02/06/2012
'I've detached myself from everyone and have become anonymous. I don't participate in life, nor do I care to participate in life. I'm just an observer,' said a homeless guy on the street. He looks hopeless and hungry and walks off. Here we are in the 21st century and still in this great nation of ours we face a dilemma of problems. What are these problems? These problems range from drugs to terror and even to homelessness. Over the past year, over 2 million men, women, and children were homeless and this number is sure to go up in coming years. Why is this? No one really knows why but many factors can cause one to become homeless. Losing ones job, becoming ill, and a lack of affordable housing can all play a major role in ones becoming homeless. What exactly does it mean to be homeless? The word homeless means having no home or permanent place of residence. To better understand the issue of homelessness it is necessary for one to not look at it in only one way but from a few different angles. You have to look at the way that different homeless people act and behave in a society; you have to look at it from a sociological perspective point of view. Within sociology, there is not a single theoretical perspective, but many theoretical perspectives. The three main perspectives are the functionalism, the conflict theory, and the symbolic interaction perspectives. The functionalism theory is about social organization and how this organization is maintained throughout the society. This theory emphasizes the importance of stability and integration in a society. The ideas come from natural sciences and look at society like a biologist would look at a living organism. They both try to identify the various parts or...
pages: 4 (words: 901)
comments: 0
added: 01/27/2012
What is homosexuality? Homosexuality is the manifestation of sexual desire toward a member of one's own sex or the erotic activity with a member of the same sex. (The Greek word homos means "the same"). A lesbian is a female homosexual. More recently the term "gay" has come into popular use to refer to both sexes who are homosexuals. Dr. Strauss's definition fails to differentiate between homosexual orientation (i.e. same sex feelings of attraction) and homosexual behavior (i.e. sexual activity with a member of the same gender). Many people have been taught during childhood that homosexual behavior is condemned both by God and by their religion as unnatural and morally degenerate. If they discover later in life that they are lesbian, gay, or bisexual they often go through a spiritual crisis. Too many realize that their sexual orientation is unchangeable, and that they cannot go through life as someone that they have been taught to hate; they commit suicide. (About 30% of teen suicides are due to this cause; one of the costs of homophobia). Survivors experience a conflict between what they are and what they believe. They sometimes abandon their religion. Some become enthusiastically anti-religious. When discrimination against a minority group is condoned by a religion, government or society, then the most extreme forms of hatred are released. We have seen this in its most extreme form of genocide, rape and "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia, directed against Muslims and others. We see hatred in our own public schools, directed against gay and lesbian students. School administrations which ignore the problem are, in effect, declaring open season on sexual minorities. The word "homophobia" originally meant "fear of homosexuals or of homosexuality." But the English language is in a continuous state of flux. Words develop different meanings as people develop a...
pages: 6 (words: 1459)
comments: 0
added: 01/31/2012
To label slavery a crime is to insist that its white beneficiaries should have known what we know today, or to say that they had information that we now have access to. Southern Honor, Ethics and Behavior in the Old South written by Bertram Wyatt-Brown; maintains that honor was the animating force in the antebellum South, the basis of the slaveholding South's integrity. The white slaveholders valued honor and genuinely trusted their own slaves, loved their families, the people that they were close to and knew best, yet they were convinced that the black race was vile, bestial, and fit for nothing but bondage. Mr. Brown in his book utters the following quote, which he feels explains why the white Southern man defended slavery and why he fought so hard to keep it instilled. "The inhabitant of the Old South was not inspired to shed his own slaves. Ever since man first picked up a stone to fling at an enemy, he has justified his thirst for revenge and for popular approval on the grounds of honor…White Southerners were certain their cause was justified by that prehistoric code." In summary this quote states that the white Southern planter did not just wake up and defend hid slaves but it was predestined that man defend his property and take revenge against his enemies. The slaves were their property and the Northerners the ones to exact their revenge upon for trying to take their slaves. The white Southerner felt that the black was inferior, an animal, and most certainly property; this opinion this caused the treatment of blacks and especially the justice system to promote the interests of the white slaveholding elite. Blacks free or slave sometimes had trials for offenses committed; many did not get trials and even fewer got fair...
pages: 3 (words: 563)
comments: 0
added: 02/04/2012
"Immigrants are to hordes what sheep are to flocks, or lions to prides. They swarm rather than arrive, their faceless uniformity evoking the insect world and its ceaseless, relentless capacity to reproduce." Over the years many things have been done to try to stop the incoming flow of illegal immigration coming over the western border, but most everything has failed which leads to the millions of Mexican immigrants living illegally in the United States. Millions of Mexicans are living illegitimately in California and that number is growing by an estimated half million per year (Long 87;Center for Immigration Studies). Illegal immigration is now a thing of the past. Years ago the flow of immigration was easily monitored and most Mexicans entering the United States were legal. Gradually things became worse and people began to hear stories of vans and cars full of Mexicans trying to cross the border being pulled over and taken to the border police; however no one really knew how bad the problem was or how much worse it would become. The two key factors that attract illegal aliens to the United States are jobs and family values. In Mexico, the average worker only makes about one tenth of what someone working in the same job in America would make (Scholsser 25). Many American companies are willing to hire immigrants because they can pay them a lot less than what they would have to pay a typical American worker. Even this low wage is higher than most Mexicans would be making in Mexico. This is what makes the U.S. seem so great to the many Mexicans trying to cross the border. Another large contributing factor to the illegal immigration from Mexico are the community of legal immigrants who form networks to bring others across the border. These...
pages: 3 (words: 745)
comments: 0
added: 11/27/2011
Irish Immigration to America There are multiple reasons why groups immigrate to the United States: liberty; whether it be political or religious, the desire for a better life, or in the case of the Irish: starvation. The agricultural collapse of Ireland, widely known as the Great Potato Famine, forced 4.5 million Irish to come to the U.S. between 1840 and 1914. As discussed in the course, this makes them the first major non-protestant group to enter the US, immediately causing Americans to perceive them as a threat. Though the Irish were seen as a threat, they arrived at a time when unskilled labor was needed and a wide range of civil service and state government jobs opened up, thus giving them a niche in society as well as opening up some channels of mobility. As a result of the famine, many Irish families were forced to emigrate from their country. By 1854, between 1½ and 2 million Irish left their country due to the harsh living conditions. In America, most Irish became city-dwellers: with little money, many had to settle in the cities that the ships they came on landed in. By 1850, the Irish made up a quarter of the population in Boston, Massachusetts; New York City; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Baltimore, Maryland. In addition, Irish populations were prevalent among American mining communities (Quinn). Today the Irish are so thoroughly assimilated into the larger American society that it is difficult for anyone to remember how harshly and unforgiving they were greeted as they arrived in the great wave that began in the mid-1840s and lasted for a decade, but white America equated them with blacks and stereotyped them accordingly as "childlike buffoons, lazy, superstitious, given to doubletalk, inflated rhetoric, and comic misuse of proper English (Quinn)." For African Americans and...
pages: 9 (words: 2290)
comments: 0
added: 12/07/2011
"The Senate should pass vital the State Grants (Primary and Secondary Education Assistance) Bill without further delay", Dr David Kemp, the Minister for Education, Training and Youth Affairs said today. "Only when this Bill is passed will every school in the country be able to benefit from the record levels of funding it provides." The State Grants (Primary and Secondary Education Assistance) Bill is the biggest ever investment by any Commonwealth government in primary and secondary education. It demonstrates the Commonwealth's commitment to improving educational outcomes for all young Australians with increased funding, strategic intervention, improved standards and choice. It will boost public confidence in Government schools by providing not only record levels of funding, but also measures by which schools can demonstrate to parents that their children are receiving the quality education that is their democratic birthright. This legislation delivers some $22 billion to schools over the next four years and provides increased funding for all schools. Included in this legislation are. •implementation of the new socio-economic status (SES) funding arrangements for non-government schools which is essential to provide improved funding for schools serving the neediest communities.. "The former category 1 schools –the subject of so much media attention and pretended outrage from the Labor Party - will get about 2.8% of the total funding "said Dr Kemp. "The previous mechanism for funding non-government schools which the Labor Party put in place and twisted through constant political manipulation is now history," said Dr Kemp. "In its place is a fairer and more equitable funding model that provides a significant funding boost for the neediest non-government schools and which reflects the actual needs of parents with their children at these schools." •Funding for government schools over the next four years will total $8.6 billion. Government schools will receive $1.4 billion...
pages: 3 (words: 668)
comments: 0
added: 12/26/2011
Life changing patterns By Navirah Zafar Jilani With the rapid advancement of media and technology, the packaging of needs have forced small molecules in the human brain to think otherwise. And it goes far beyond that. The choices one makes in life dictates what types of clothes you wear, where you live, who you marry, the colours in your home, the type of plants and flowers you have in your garden, what you eat for breakfast, who you choose to dine with, the type of car you drive, what you watch on television, the music you like, and the list goes on and on. An individual's lifestyle is dictated by the choices one makes, if that person disregards the existence of the divine spirituality, he/she is nothing but a fool in paradise. Times have changed people have changed. Yesteryears were innocent days, where a disagreement between father and child seemed objectionable, a disgrace on the child. But now as one looks around you see people's faces and questions of wanting it all. Life encountered miseries have left the land of amphibians in a chaotic mess. Gazing in the eyes of an infant a father cherishes his heritage, unaware that it is "I" (infant) who will break you down. "What is life", is it the diamond necklace one bedazzles or is it food on a poor man's table or is it the pleasure a father gets holding his new born. Back in the days life was simple(not that I'm that old), for some as a kid going to the regular super market to have ice cream was considered a delight, one still recalls the oooh's and aaaah's of agitated mothers when asking for ice-cream money. Now if you ask a kid to eat the market ice- cream, he/she might throw tantrums...
pages: 4 (words: 998)
comments: 0
added: 01/12/2012
Life changing patterns By Navirah Zafar Jilani With the rapid advancement of media and technology, the packaging of needs have forced small molecules in the human brain to think otherwise. And it goes far beyond that. The choices one makes in life dictates what types of clothes you wear, where you live, who you marry, the colours in your home, the type of plants and flowers you have in your garden, what you eat for breakfast, who you choose to dine with, the type of car you drive, what you watch on television, the music you like, and the list goes on and on. An individual's lifestyle is dictated by the choices one makes, if that person disregards the existence of the divine spirituality, he/she is nothing but a fool in paradise. Times have changed people have changed. Yesteryears were innocent days, where a disagreement between father and child seemed objectionable, a disgrace on the child. But now as one looks around you see people's faces and questions of wanting it all. Life encountered miseries have left the land of amphibians in a chaotic mess. Gazing in the eyes of an infant a father cherishes his heritage, unaware that it is "I" (infant) who will break you down. "What is life", is it the diamond necklace one bedazzles or is it food on a poor man's table or is it the pleasure a father gets holding his new born. Back in the days life was simple(not that I'm that old), for some as a kid going to the regular super market to have ice cream was considered a delight, one still recalls the oooh's and aaaah's of agitated mothers when asking for ice-cream money. Now if you ask a kid to eat the market ice- cream, he/she might throw tantrums...
pages: 4 (words: 998)
comments: 0
added: 02/13/2012
Pets lighten it up! Adeel Salman There are many terms used to describe ways in which animals can help rehabilitate and heal people with special needs. These include 'pet therapy,' 'pet facilitated therapy,' or 'animal-assisted therapy.' Pets can help people with a variety of mental, emotional, and physical disabilities. Fish, birds, pocket pets, rabbits, cats, dogs, and horses have all been employed in pet therapy. Animals are warm and fuzzy and alive. Being able to hold and pet another living creature can provide a great deal of comfort. Many people have a close relationship with their pets. These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Some people do not have any pets in their house, except for unwanted ones such as a raccoon or mouse. These people think that there is no place for animals in their places. However, other people have animals such as dogs, cats, and birds in their families and they have a close relationship with their pets. Personally, I belong to the people who treat their pets as members of their family. For several reasons, which I will mention bellow, I think that such relationships between a man and an animal bring many benefits. First of all, when people treat their pets as members of their families it means that they feel responsibilities for their little ones. As a result of this people care about their pets' health, their diet and shape, and I think both sides benefit from this kind of relationships. People do not feel alone and pets are in good hands. Personally, I think that pets give people a great opportunity to feel they are needed by...
pages: 4 (words: 865)
comments: 0
added: 12/27/2011
Some of the topics this surprisingly intelligent film takes on are peer pressure, violence, pressures of an impoverished urban environment, adolescent pride, black/white conflicts, interracial relationships, single teen parenthood, racial stereotypes, racial prejudice, absentee fathers, loyalty in friendships, and more. While failing to adequately address any of these issues, the film makes it known that they indeed exist, and are not to be ignored. The movie proposes that kids, whether suburban whites or inner-city blacks, have the power to determine the course of their lives using determination and talent. The characters are intelligent and almost believable, and are constantly questioning themselves and their social environment in sometimes very realistic ways. The film deals with both real and ideal aspects of race statuses and relationships. While Derek and Malakai's situation can be very believable, the fact that Sara immediately fits into a society where to say she is a minority would be an understatement is somewhat unrealistic. Taking a further look at Malakai's character, it's not unheard of for someone of his status and poor/criminal background to feel that they are incapable of doing anything else with their life. The "happily-ever-after" ending is possible, however not very probable; for what appears to be the only interracial couple in the film to live together in peace and harmony is highly unrealistic. The movie idealistically shows and implies only few instances of conflict as a result of their relationship, whereas in reality, especially in a predominantly black society, there probably would have been more controversy surrounding their relationship. The film both supports and denies race relations as described in the text. As mentioned earlier, the movie had a habit of idealizing interactions between Sara and her dad vs. the rest of the society. Derek and Chenille take Sara to "Steps", a hip-hop club...
pages: 2 (words: 482)
comments: 0
added: 12/18/2011
Sex and Singles "Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow" Many people feel that having casual sex is a way to fulfill a person's sexual needs and desires, without the hassle of a commitment. Yet, many people, often women, have a tendency to wonder if the person that they are having casual sex with, cares about them, loves them, or respects them. Many women may feel this way because of the emotional attachment they get when giving themselves to another person. However, it can be a double standard. Some men may also feel this way. The truth is I do not believe that a person that gives himself or herself to another person, in the form of intercourse, is respected or loved unless they are in a relationship with their sexual partner. True, their casual sex partner may care for them, or again, they may not. I think it really depends on the situation, and with whom they are having casual sex. However, in my own personal experiences, I have never found any respect or love. In Chapter 7 of our text "Marriages and Families" the authors talk briefly about casual sex, and if a person will be respected the next day. They justify this by saying, "Maybe" however, a person that experiences casual sex in the single life, may differ in opinion. I personally have been the victim of this non- respectful act, several times. I may only speak for myself but I am sure that I am not the only person that has experienced this. I have had casual sex with people that I really liked and cared for, and when engaging in sexual intercourse, I was under the impression that my partners felt the same way. However, afterwards, or as the text says "the next day" I was...
pages: 3 (words: 668)
comments: 0
added: 01/23/2012
Organized religion is a duality between the religion and the church which represents it. Sometimes the representation of the religion is marred and flawed to those who view it because of the bureaucracy contained within. Unknown to those who gaze upon the dissolved morals and values of what is perceived to be the contradiction known as modern religion, it was never intended to be this way. Most religions started off as a sect, a minor detail on the fringes of the society it never wanted to represent. Rastfarianism is such a sect. The differences between Rastafarianism and a normal "mainstream" religion are numberless, including: no set membership, no authoritative leader, no offices of authority, no trained clergy and no involvement with the world as a whole. Rastafarianism is based upon an underrepresented minority which needed hope in the face in utter demise. According to Max Weber, religion emerges to satisfy a social need. "In treating suffering as a symptom of odiousness in the eyes of gods and as a sign of secret guilt, religion has psychologically met a very general need (Weber 271). Rastafarianism emerges in the slums of Kingston, Jamaica in the 1930's to meet the needs of the poor, unskilled black Jamaicans who needed a hope. The social situation which was emerging in the 1930's which called for this need was as follows. Jamaica was a commonwealth of the British Empire. It had recently, around 1884, received a write in clause to their constitution which stipulated if the new government did not succeed and the economic life of Jamaica were to suffer because of it, the political constitution would be amended or abolished to meet new conditions. Black Jamaicans had a taste for power in their mouths and in 1938, this erupted in labor riots and violence. This...
pages: 14 (words: 3695)
comments: 0
added: 11/24/2012
According To Social Psychologists, How Do Victim, Offender And Third-party Interactions Impact Upon Criminal Outcomes? During the late 1940s, Sutherland (1947) advanced that explanations of crime and deviance are of either a situational or a dispositional nature. Additionally, he argued that of the two explanations, situational ones might be of the most importance. Hirschi & Gottfredson (1986) made a critical distinction in light of this issue, the distinction was between the terms crime and criminality. Crime, they proposed refers to 'events that presuppose a set of necessary conditions'. Criminality on the other hand refers to 'stable differences across individuals in the propensity to commit criminal acts' (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1986: 58). They went on to point out that criminality is necessary, but is not a sufficient condition for crime to occur, since crime requires important situational inducements. Despite these propositions, social psychologists in the following decades tended to focus on dispositional theories of crime and deviance, that is, focusing on individual differences. There is a wealth of literature focusing on motivations and characteristics of criminal offenders (e.g. Cohen, 1955,as cited in Birkbeck & LaFree, 1993; Cloward & Ohlin, 1960), and a modest amount attending to the victims of crime (Cohen, Kleugel, & Land, 1981). However the suggestion is well documented (e.g. Hepburn, 1973; Athens, 1985; Luckenbill, 1977) that there is a need for research to focus on the sequential development and interactional dynamics of criminally violent situations. This is based on the notion that violence is, at least in part, situationally determined (Felson & Steadman, 1983). Symbolic interactionism is such a guiding approach in this field, so it is important to clarify what sets it apart from others in the area; there are two main important such points. Firstly , social interactionist theory focuses on the objective fact of situations...
pages: 15 (words: 3903)
comments: 0
added: 11/20/2011
"Trafficking is the recruitment and or the transportation of persons by others using violence or the threat of violence, abuse of authority or dominant position…for the purpose of exploiting them sexually or economically for the profit or advantage of others, such as recruiters, traffickers, brothel owners and customers." (unknown author, "What is Trafficking?") Trafficking in women and girls has become one of the fastest growing criminal enterprises in the world. An estimate of one to two million women and girls are trafficked around the world, annually, 10,000 to 100,000 of which are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. (International Women's Issues, "Trafficking in Women and Girls-An International Human Rights Violation") Women migrate to cities or across international borders to support families, and they usually migrate alone. Traffickers in women lure victims with advertisements and false promises of jobs as waitresses, sales clerks, nannies and models. In Thailand and South Africa, women and girls, especially those who are poor, are vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking, and often times it is the only option open for them. The following is an experience of a Burmese girl caught in the trafficking of women and girls into Thailand. When "Lin Lin" was thirteen years old, shortly after her mother's death and her father's remarriage, she was taken by her father from their village of Chom Dtong to Mae Sai. At the job placement agency in Mae Sai, her father was given 12,000 baht ($480) from an agent who assured him he could find a job for Lin Lin in Thailand. Lin Lin was sent on a bus to Bangkok, the capital of Thailand. The agent from Mae Sai met her at a hotel in Bangkok and took Lin Lin to Kanchanaburi, a city west of Bangkok. She was brought to the Ran Dee...
pages: 10 (words: 2559)
comments: 0
added: 01/03/2012
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